A Concise Bibliography for Llyfr Aneirin (The Book of Aneirin)

The first scholarly edition of Llyfr Aneirin by today's standards was Skene (1868). This gave the first complete edition transcribed directly from the manuscript (modernised lineation), with English translation and notes. The first facsimile and hyper-diligent diplomatic transcription was Evans (1908), but beware of his second volume (1922) containing a mangled modernisation, parallel-universe translations, and exotic pseudo-history.

The definitive modern classic came with Williams's Canu Aneirin (1938), broadly agreeing with Evans's manuscript readings and forming the basis of mainstream studies throughout the twentieth century. Williams's major innovation was to analytically rearrange the stanzas according to a reductivist A-Text/B-Text model of structural variants. This resulted in an idiosyncratic referencing system bearing scant relation to the manuscript's internal organisation, although the subsequent ubiquity of "CA" (Canu Aneirin) notation was also effectively the sign of an emergent "Consensus Aneirin". Since Williams's critical material was all in Welsh, Jackson (1969) took on an exegetical role for English readers, adding provisional translations of the primary text (with the B-Text given first according to historical priority). Jackson also developed Williams's CA referencing system, still rooted in its A-Text/B-Text model, but simultaneously cross-referencing the manuscript's own immanent structure. The most accessible and popular standard edition was Jarman (1995), building from Williams and Jackson in a handy parallel text of modernised Welsh and English translation, along with a broad-based introduction. Koch's edition (1997) reached the radical summit of the modern approach in an intense linguistics project developing a theoretical Brittonic ur-text that also posited a further subdivision of the B-Text into a B¹ and B². However, this came with an accessible and elegant translation that rescued the project from academic obscurity and yielded significant popular success, not least by inclusion in more generalist Celtic Studies collections.

The first coordinated challenge to the "Consensus Aneirin" was made by Klar, O Hehir & Sweetser (1985). In this and a handful of subsequent papers, the mainstream Grail-quest for a recoverable underlying unity was countered by a faintly post-structuralist shift towards further textual, scribal and even authorial heterogeneity, with vague echoes of Classical philology's "Homeric Question" in the nineteenth century. Nonetheless, this initially promising project was short-lived — no new radical edition emerged and Williams's CA position consequently retained its canonic status relatively unscathed.

The fullest and most revealing technical analysis of the manuscript itself can be found in the first colour facsimile edition by Huws (1989), supplemented by a timely reprint of Evans's 1908 transcription. Huws's general avoidance of literary-historical agonistics and his broadly Positivist concentration on Llyfr Aneirin as a physical artefact opened a refreshingly contemplative annexe to the disputes in the mainstream scriptorium. Unfortunately, his edition was expensive and is now very rare but its high-quality full-colour facsimiles were subsequently released online by Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru (National Library of Wales) — a major contribution to the public accessibility of the primary text.

1: The Primary Text

Llyfr Aneirin (The Book of Aneirin), Lyfrgell Ganolog Caerdydd (Cardiff Central Library) MS 2.81
— official online facsimile published at the Oriel Ddigidol (Digital Gallery) section of Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru (National Library of Wales).

2: Relevant Manuscripts

British Library MS Harl.3859
Historia Brittonum C11th. Sometimes attrib. Nennius.

Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru / National Library of Wales MS Peniarth 45
Includes Aneirin triads.
— official online facsimile at: Llawysgrifau Peniarth (The Peniarth Manuscripts) section of Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru (National Library of Wales).

Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru / National Library of Wales MS Peniarth 51 (Hengwrt 134)
Gwilym Tew of Llangynwyd, Commonplace Book of Gwilym Tew C15th. Pages 119-123 include a glossary of older words from Llyfr Aneirin (cf. Williams 1922). Also contains triads.
— official online facsimile at: Llawysgrifau Peniarth (The Peniarth Manuscripts) section of Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru (National Library of Wales).

3: Editions / Translations

Barber, George Duckett 1855. Ancient Oral Records of the Cimri, or Britons, in Asia and Europe, Recovered Through a Literal Aramitic Translation of the Old Welsh Bardic Relics. London: J.R. Smith.
Easily the most "exotic" interpretation: 100% comedy-value guaranteed!!! The first generalised salvo was delivered in: Barber, G.D. 1853-54. Suggestions on the Ancient Britons in Three Parts. London: J.R. Smith.

Clancy, Thomas Owen 1998. The Triumph Tree: Scotland's Earliest Poetry AD 550-1350. Edinburgh: Canongate.
English translation, A-Text & B-Text seperate.

Davies, Edward 1809. The Mythology and Rites of the British Druids Ascertained by National Documents; and Compared with the General Traditions and Customs of Heathenism, as Illustrated by the Most Eminent Antiquaries of Our Age. With an Appendix Containing Ancient Poems and Extracts, with some Remarks on Ancient British Coins. London: Booth.
English translations and notoriously "exotic" arguments regarding Vortigern, Hengist & Stonehenge.

Evans, Evan ("Ieuan Fardd" a.k.a. "Ieuan Brydydd Hir") 1764a. Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Antient Welsh Bards. London: Dodsley.
_________ 1764b. De Bardis Dissertatio, in Evans 1764a, 59-93.
First print selection (modernised) and first translation (Latin): 10 A-Text stanzas.

Evans, John Gwenogvryn 1908. Llyvyr Aneirin: Facsimile & Text of the Book of Aneirin. Pwllheli.
The first facsimile edition and classic diplomatic transcription.
_________ 1922. The Book of Aneirin. Llanbedrog.
Exotic essays, mangled modernisations and parallel-universe translations. Unfortunate "Vol.II" supplement to the genuinely excellent & ground-breaking 1908 volume.

Gray, Thomas (ed. Mason, William) 1775. The Poems of Mr. Gray, to which are prefixed Memoirs of his Life and Writings. London: York: Ward.
_______ (ed. & trans. "Mr. D.B.") 1797. Les Poesies de Mr. Thomas Gray. London: le Boussonnier.
In his latter years, Gray made translations "from the Welch", based on Latin versions in Evans (1764). The Llyfr Aneirin fragments were only published posthumously, in ed. Mason (1775). The 1797 translation is an early appearance of Aneirin in French — or, rather, Aneirin in French via Gray's English via Evan's Latin!

Huws, Daniel 1989. Llyfr Aneirin: A Facsimile / Llyfr Aneirin: Ffacsimile. Aberystwyth: Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru.
Classic facsimile edition with edition of the diplomatic transcription from Evans 1908.

Jackson, Kenneth Hurlstone 1969. The Gododdin: The Oldest Scottish Poem. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
General introduction, with English notes to Williams 1938.

Jarman, A.O.H. 1995. Y Gododdin. Llandysul: Gomer.
Modernisation from Williams 1938 with English translation.

Jones, Edward 1802. The Bardic Museum, of Primitive British Literature; and Other Admirable Rarities; forming the Second Volume of the Musical, Poetical, and Historical Relicks of the Welsh Bards and Druids. London: Strahan.
_________ 1808. Musical and Poetical Relicks of the Welsh Bards: Preserved by Tradition, and Authentic Manuscripts, from Very Remote Antiquity; Never Before Published. London.
Early minor printed selections.

Koch, John T. 1997. The Gododdin of Aneirin: Text and Context from Dark-Age North Britain. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Valuable attempt to reconstruct a Brittonic ur-text, with English translation.
_________ with Carey, John 2000. The Celtic Heroic Age: Literary Sources for Ancient Celtic Europe & Early Ireland & Wales. Oakville: Celtic Studies Publications.
Includes English translation based on Koch 1997.

Matthews, John 1998. The Bardic Source Book: Inspirational Legacy and Teachings of the Ancient Celts. London: Blandford.
Unconsciously-incomplete reprint of Skene 1868.

O'Grady, Desmond 1977. The Gododdin. Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe.

Probert, William 1820. The Gododin, and the Odes of the Months. London: Williams.

Short, Steve 1995. The Gododdin of Aneirin. Felinfach: Llanerch.
Free poetic translation into English, mainly based on Jackson 1969 & Jarman 1995.

Skene, William Forbes 1868. The Four Ancient Books of Wales, Containing the Cymric Poems attributed to the Bards of the Sixth Century. Edinburgh: Edmonston & Douglas.
Classic complete edition with English translation.

Stephens, Thomas (ed. Powell, Thomas) 1888. The Gododin of Aneurin Gwawdrydd. London: Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion.

de la Villemarqué, Théodore Hersart 1850. Poèmes des Bardes Bretons du VIe Siècle. Paris: Renouard.
Classic early translations into Breton and French.
_________ 1856. Notices des Principaux Manuscrits des Anciens Bretons, avec Fac-Simile. Paris: Impériale.
First "facsimile" extract (from opening of Gorchan Tutwulch).

Warton, Thomas 1775 (2nd ed.). The History of English Poetry, from the Close of the Eleventh to the Commencement of the Eighteenth Century. To which are Prefixed Two Dissertations. I. On the Origin of Romantic Fiction in Europe. II. On the Introduction of Learning into England Vol.1. London: Dodsley, et al.
Although only included in a footnote (pp.62-63), this contains the first literal translation of a passage into English, from Evans 1764b.

Williams, Edward ("Iolo Morganwg") with Jones, Owen & Owen, William 1801. The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, Collected out of Ancient Manuscripts. London: Rousseau.
Includes the first large-scale print edition.

Williams, Ifor 1938 (repr.2001). Canu Aneirin. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
The classic standard edition (all in Welsh — cf. Jackson 1969).

Williams ab Ithel, John 1852. Y Gododin: A Poem on the Battle of Cattraeth by Aneurin, a Welsh Poet of the Sixth Century, with an English Translation, and Numerous Historical and Critical Annotations. Llandovery: William Rees.
Useful edition and translation with comphrenehsive footnotes of early modern manuscript transcriptions.

Williams, Rowland ("Goronva Camlan") 1846. Lays from the Cimbric Lyre: With Various Verses. London: William Pickering.
Includes minor selected translation.

4: Critical Heritage

Cessford, Craig 1994. "Gardens of the 'Gododdin'," in Garden History 22.i, 114-115.
_______ 1997. "Northern England and the Gododdin Poem," in Northern History 33, 218-222.

Coppens, Philip 2007. Land of the Gods: How a Scottish Landscape was Sanctified to Become Arthurs Camelot. Amsterdam: Frontier Publishing & Adventures Unlimited Press.

Cunliffe, Barry W. 1974. Iron Age Communities in Britain: An Account of England, Scotland and Wales from the Seventh Century B.C. until the Roman Conquest. London: Routledge.

Denholm-Young, Noel 1954. Handwriting in England and Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Dumville, David N. 1988. "Early Welsh Poetry: Problems of Historicity," in Roberts 1988, 1-16.

Evans, John Gwenogvryn (ed.), Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts 1902. Report on Manuscripts in the Welsh Language, Vol.II. London: H.M.S.O.

Feachem, Richard 1965. The North Britons: The Prehistory of a Border People. London: Hutchinson.

Griffen, Toby D. 1994. Names from the Dawn of British Legend: Taliesin, Aneirin, Myrddin/Merlin, Arthur. Felinfach: Llanerch.
_________ 2001. The Last Battle of the Gododdin: The Hidden Poem in Ames Prydein. Felinfach: Llanerch.

Haycock, Marged 1988. "Metrical Models for the Poems in the Book of Taliesin," in Roberts 1988, 155-177.

O Hehir, Brendan 1988. "What is the Gododdin?" in Roberts 1988, 57-95.

Hogg, A.H.A. 1945. "Gwynedd and the Votadini," in Antiquity 74, 80-84.
_________ 1951. "The Votadini," in (ed. Grimes, W.F.) Aspects of Archaeology in Britain and Beyond. Edwards, 200-220.

Huws, Daniel 1988. "Canu Aneirin: The Other Manuscripts," in Roberts 1988, 43-56.
_________ 2000. Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Isaac, Graham R. 1996. The Verb in the Book of Aneirin: Studies in Syntax, Morphology and Etymology. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Jackson, Kenneth Hurlstone 1939. "The 'Gododdin' of Aneirin," in Antiquity 49, 25-34.

Jarman, A.O.H. 1992. "Aneirin—The Gododdin," in Jarman & Hughes 1992, 68-80.

Jarman, A.O.H. & Hughes, Gwilym Rees (eds.) 1976 (rev.1992). A Guide to Welsh Literature, Vol.I. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
_________ 1979. A Guide to Welsh Literature, Vol.II. Llandybïe: Davies.

Jones, Owen 1870. The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales: Collected out of Ancient Manuscripts. To which has been Added Additional Notes upon the 'Gododin'. Denbigh: T. Gee.

Klar, Kathryn A., O Hehir, Brendan & Sweetser, Eve E. 1985. "The Components of Cardiff MS. Welsh 1, Llyfr Aneirin," in Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies XXXII, 38-49.

Klar, Kathryn A. 1988. "What are the Gwarchanau?" in Roberts 1988, 97-137.

Koch, John T. 1987. "llawr en assed: 'The Laureate Hero in the War-chariot' (C[anu] A[neirin] 932): Some Recol­lec­tions of the Iron Age in the Gododdin," in Études celtiques XXIV, 253-278.
_________ 1988. "The Cynfeirdd Poetry and the Language of the Sixth Century," in Roberts 1988, 17-41.
_________ 1991. "Gleanings from the Gododdin and Other Early Welsh Texts," Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies XXXVIII, 111-118.
_________ 1993. "Thoughts on the Ur-Gododin: Rethinking Aneirin and Mynydawc Mwynvawr," in Language Sciences XV.2, 81-89.
_________ 1999. "The Place of Y Gododdin in the History of Scotland," in (ed. Black, R., et al) Celtic Connections: Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Celtic Studies Vol. 1. East Linton: Tuckwell Press, 199-210.

Lhuyd, Edward 1707. Archæologia Britannica. Oxford.

Lloyd, D. Myrddin 1979. "Dafydd Nanmor," in Jarman & Hughes 1979, 189-201.

MacDiarmid, Matthew P. 1983. "The Gododdin and Other Heroic Poems of Scotland," in (ed. McClure, J.D.) Scotland and the Lowland Tongue. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1-17.
_________ 1992. "Brett and Pict, Taliesin and Aneirin in Early Scotland," in McKenna, Steven R. (ed.) Selected Essays on Scottish Language and Literature. Lampeter: Edwin Melle Press, 1-12.

Maurice, William 1658 (ed. "Brychan Brecheinioc" 1818). "A Catalogue of Curious and Valuable MSS. in Hengwrt Library, A.D. 1658," in Cambrian Register III, 277-313.

Mittendorf, Ingo 1999. "Sprachliche und Orthographische Besonderheiten eines Mittelkymrischen Textes aus dem 13. Jahrhundert," in Akten des Zweiten Deutschen Keltologen-Symposiums: (Bonn, 2-4 April 1997) XVII, 127-148.

Morris-Jones, John 1918. Taliesin. "Y Cymmrodor" XXVIII. London: Society of Cymmrodorion.

Padel, Oliver 1998. "A New Study of the Gododdin," in Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 35, 45-55.

Parry, John H. 1834. The Cambrian Plutarch Comprising Memoirs of Some of the Most Eminent Welshmen, from the Earliest Times to the Present. London: Simpkin & Marshall.

Price, Thomas (ed. Williams, Jane) 1854. The Literary Remains of the Rev. Thomas Price, Carnhuanawc. Llandovery: William Rees.

Roberts, Brynley F. (ed.) 1988. Early Welsh Poetry: Studies in the Book of Aneirin. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales.

Rowland, Jenny 1988. "Genres," in Roberts 1988, 179-208.

Stephens, Thomas 1849. The Literature of the Kymry: Being a Critical Essay on the History of the Language and Literature of Wales. London: William Rees.

Sweetser, Eve E. 1988. "Line-Structure and Rhan-Structure: The Metrical Units of the Gododdin Corpus," in Roberts 1988, 139-154.

Turner, Sharon 1803. "Vindication of the Genuineness of the Ancient British Poems of Aneurin, Taliesin, Llywarch Hen, and Merdhin, with specimens of the poems," in The History of the Anglo-Saxons from the Earliest Period to the Norman Conquest. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart 1841, Vol.II, pp.483-610.

Williams, Edward ("Iolo Morganwg") 1829. Cyfrinach Beirdd Ynys Prydain. Abertawe: Williams.

Williams, Ifor 1922. "Geirfa o Hen Gymraeg" in Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies I, 216-225.
_________ (ed. Bromwich, Rachel) 1980. The Beginnings of Welsh Poetry. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Williams ab Ithel, John ("Cynhaval af Argad") 1829. "The Gododin. For the Cambrian Quarterly Magazine", in Cambrian Quarterly Magazine I, 352-355.

Williams, Taliesin ("ab Iolo") 1848. Iolo Manuscripts. Llandovery: Rees.

5: Discography

Bragod 2005. Kaingk: Medieval & later Welsh music & poetry.
Includes settings of the Dinogat Hwiangerdd and Gododdin stanza A.48=CA.li A.

Test Dept / Brith Gof 1989. Gododdin. Ministry of Power MOP 4.

6: Miscellaneous
(inc. work inspired by Llyfr Aneirin)

Caddel, Richard 2000. For the Fallen: A Reading of Y Gododdin. Bray: Wild Honey Press.

Davies, Edward 1795. Elisa Powell, or Trials of Sensibility: a Series of Original Letters, Collected by a Welsh Curate. 2 Vols. London: Robinson. Cf. Vol.II, pp.151-154.

Evans, Thomas Hopkin & Lewis, H. Elvet 1926. Kynon. A Dramatic Legend, Libretto based on the Oldest Welsh Poem Extant - Y Gododin, by H. Elvet Lewis, set to Music for Soprano, Tenor and Baritone soli, Chorus and Orchestra, by T. Hopkin Evans. London: Enoch & Sons.

Sutcliff, Rosemary 1991. The Shining Company. London: Red Fox.